This page gives overall information about the project.

The context of the VERDI project was the employment of human simulation tools for occupant packaging in vehicle design processes. The overall objective was to study the current occupant packaging methodology, and to develop a methodology for the integration of modern simulation tools in the vehicle design process. Examples of sub-issues dealt within the VERDI project are:
- Driving posture. A study that investigated drivers' preferred postures, preferred interior dimensions and how they characterised their postures was carried out. 38 drivers drove 25 minutes in a mock-up connected to a simulator. This resulted in data of preferred postures, presented in joint angles and preferred interior dimensions according to SAE standards.
- Vision. This study analyse the effect of push button location and auditory feedback on drivers' visual time off road and safety perception when driving in a real traffic situation. An eye tracking system registered the visual behaviour of 8 drivers who, in 96 repeated trials each, were instructed to press a specific button. Linked to this study a fuzzy logic model was developed that can be used for evaluating vehicle button positions in terms of visual demand and the driver's safety perception.
- Design and evaluation of a support system for a human simulation process where the the tool user is guided through a defined process. The system documents, stores and keeps track of ongoing and previous analyses and facilitates the reuse of studies. A participative design approach for the development of the support system was used, involving human simulation tool users and managers within the General Motors Group. Eleven subjects from industry and university settings evaluated the support system. The use of the support system aims to reduce differences in simulation results, within and between tool users, and to deliver well-founded and consistent results.
- Manikin family. The common percentile approach to define users' bodily dimensions is not suitable for multivariate problems such as the design of car cockpits. An alternative way is to use a set, a family, of manikins for evaluation that better represents human variety. The aim of this study was to compare seat and steering wheel adjustment ranges obtained when using manikin families or a percentile approach as the user representation in human simulation software.
- One part of the VERDI project addressed visualisation of ergonomics guidelines. By applying modern and flexible visualisation technology to company specific existing ergonomics guidelines the information became more accessible, easy to find and comprehend, both by experts and non-experts in ergonomics.



Project leader

Lars Hanson, Lund University


Academic institutions / Research organisations

- Chalmers University of Technology
- Lund University
- National Institute for Working Life
- University of Skövde
- Loughborough University, UK

Industrial partners

- Saab Automobile


The project is funded by:
- the Swedish Programme Council for Vehicle Research
- the Foundation for Knowledge and Competence Development
- The participating organisations


Högberg, D. (2009). Digital human modelling for user-centred vehicle design and anthropometric analysis. International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 51, No. 3/4, pp. 306-323.

Hanson, L., Blomé, M., Dukic, T. and Högberg, D. (2006). Guide and documentation system to support digital human modeling applications. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 36, pp 17-24.

Dukic, T., Hanson, L. and Falkmer, T. (2006). Effects of drivers' age and control location on secondary task performance during driving. Ergonomics 49 (1), pp 78-92

Hanson, L., Sperling, L. and Akselsson, R. (2006). Preferred car driving posture using 3-D information. International Journal of of Vehicle Design 42, No.1/2: pp 154-169

Högberg D. and Case K. (2006). Manikin Characters: User Characters in Human Computer Modelling, Contemporary Ergonomics , Bust, P.D. (ed), Taylor & Francis, UK, April 2006, pp 499-503, ISBN 0-415-39818-5.

Dukic, T., Hanson, L., Holmqvist, K. and Wartenberg, W. (2005). Effect of buttons location on drivers visual behaviour and safety perception. Ergonomics, 48 (4), pp 399-410

Högberg D. and Case K. (2005). The impact of manikin family configuration on accommodation, Proceedings of the Nordic Ergonomics Society conference "Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation", Oslo, Norway, October 2005, pp 91-95, ISBN 82-995747-1-4.

Blomé M., Dukic T., Hanson L. and Högberg D. (2003). Simulation of Human-Vehicle Interaction in Vehicle Design at Saab Automobile: Present and Future, SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2192. SAE 2003 Transactions, Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems.

Blomé M., Dukic T., Hanson L. and Högberg D. (2003). Web-Based Protocol for Human Simulation Process and Documentation, The Europe Chapter Annual Meeting on Human Factors in Design, Lund, Sweden, October 2003.

Dukic, T., Hanson, L., Holmqvist, K. and Wartenberg, W. (2003). Effect of buttons on time off road- A case study in real traffic. Proceedings of the conference Vision In Vehicle 10, Granada, Spanien.

Högberg D., Hanson L. and Case K. (2003). Computer Manikin Family Usage for Human Accomodation, Proceedings of the Nordic Ergonomics Society conference "Mind and Body in a Technological World", Reykavik, Iceland, August 2003, pp 184-188, ISBN 9979-60-861-7.

Blomé M., Dukic T., Hanson L. and Högberg D. (2003). Computer-Based Protocol for Human Simulation Report, Proceedings of IEA 2003 - the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Seoul, Korea, August 2003, V.3, pp 30-33.

Hanson, L., Dukic, T., Sperling, L., Holmqvist, K. and Wartenberg, C. (2003). Application of Fuzzy Logics for Modeling Driver's Visual Demand and Safety Perception when Operating Vehicle Controls. Proceedings of IEA 2003 - the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Seoul, Korea, August 2003, V.3

Högberg D. (2003). Use of Characters and Scenarios in Gear Shift Design Proceedings of the Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, Pittsburgh, USA, June 2003, pp 140-141.

Högberg D., Case K. and De Vin L.J. (2002). Overlapping Ergonomic Evaluation in the Automotive Design Process, Manufacturing the Future Through Innovation and Research', Proceedings of the International Manufacturing Conference, IMC19, P.J. Armstrong (Ed), Queen's University, Belfast, August 2002, pp 233-241, ISBN 0-85389-8227.

Hanson, L., Sperling, L., Akselsson, R., Moberg, K. and Stigson, H. (2002). Posture at Car Driving. In proceedings of Nordic Ergonomic Society Annual Conference, Kolmården, Sweden, V1, pp 325-330

Högberg D. and Case K. (2002). Supporting 'Design for All' in Automotive Ergonomics, Proceedings of the XVIth Annual International Occupational Ergonomics and Safety Conference, The International Society for Occupational Ergonomics & Safety, Toronto, Canada, June 2002, CD-ROM.