Research results concerning how standards can inhibit competition and create lock-in were discussed amongst researchers and policy makers in a meeting at the European Commission on 3 February 2017. Discussions highlighted challenges identified in previous research concerning how procurement of file format standards can create barriers for competition and inhibit implementation in open source software.
For details, see:
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J. and Katz, A. (2015) On implementation of Open Standards in software: To what extent can ISO standards be implemented in open source software? International Journal of Standardization Research, Vol. 13(1), pp. 47-73. http://his.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:925474/FULLTEXT01.pdf