Completed Projects

Comparison of a single vs. a four intradermal sterile water injection for relief of lower back pain for women in labour: a randomised controlled trial

The objective of this trial was to evaluate the degree and duration of analgesia provided by a single injection of sterile water, compared to four injections. In this RCT 305 women were randomised to either one of four injections of sterile water. The study protocol is registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12609000964213).The result shows that four injection techniques was associated with increased level of analgesia at 30 minutes post- intervention compared to the single injection, but also a greater degree of injection pain. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22770818

Cross sectional study of Australian midwives knowledge and use of sterile water injections for pain relief in labour

Four hundred and seven midwives answer a survey about the use of sterile water injections in Australia. This study indicates that SWI is not being used by the majority of midwives participating in the study, although there is a strong desire by midwives to learn about and explore its use. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22222092

A randomized non-inferiority controlled trial of a single versus a four intradermal sterile water injection technique for relief of continuous lower back pain during labour

This paper illustrate a design of a RCT aiming to this study is to determine if the single injection SWI techniques is no less effective than the routinely used four injection SWI method in reducing continuous lower back pain during labour. The study protocol is registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12609000964213). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21429223

The patient observer: sterile water injections for labor pain

The aim of this studyr was to illustrate the use of the method in a clinical childbirth situation by means of descriptive case report. This woman used sterile water injections only during her first childbirth. In total she received approximately 30 injections at different pain locations. She wanted to avoid pharmacological pain relief methods and find sterile water injections to give powerful pain relief. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21083726

Sterile water injections for labour pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

The objective with this systematic review was to determine if sterile water injection for low back pain compared to placebo or alternative therapy increased or decreased the rate of Caesarean section. Eight RCT:s (n=828) were including in the review and the results shows that the Caesarean section rate was 4.6% in the sterile water injection group and 9.9% in the comparison group, (RR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.87). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19459860

US midwives knowledge and use of sterile water injections for labor pain

In this survey 232 of 450 midwives answer a survey about the use of sterile water injections as pain relief during childbirth. The result shows that the use of sterile water injections is infrequently and there is a lack of knowledge about this method but also an interest in knowing more. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=m%C3%A5rtensson+mercer+2008

Acupuncture versus subcutaneous injections of sterile water as treatment for labour pain

In this RCT 128 women were randomised to either acupuncture or sterile water injections as pain treatment for labour pain. The main results from this study was the sterile water injections yielded greater pain relief during childbirth compared to acupuncture. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18231884

Use of acupuncture and sterile water injection for labour pain: a survey in Sweden

The aim was to elucidate the clinical use of acupuncture and sterile water injection as pain relief and relaxation during childbirth in Sweden. Of 960 midwives 59% answer the survey and the result shows that sterile water injections were used almost exclusively for pain relief. The results also indicate a weakness in midwives awareness and use of the scientific knowledge and general recommendation about these methods. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17150067

Subcutaneous versus intracutaneous injections of sterile water for labour analgesia: a comparison of perceived pain during administration

In a single-blind RCT with cross-over design 100 women were randomised to one of two groups and subjected to two trials testing intracutaneous and subcutaneous injections of sterile water. The findings shows that the subcutaneous injection is less painful compared to the intracutaneous injection. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11028576

Labour pain treated with cutaneous injections of sterile water: a randomised controlled trial

In a double-blind RCT 99 women were randomised to one of three groups, four injections of sterile water intracutaneously, four injections of sterile water subcutaneously, four injections of isotonic saline subcutaneously. The new subcutaneous methods of administering sterile water, as well as the earlier described intracutaneous injection method, were effective for the relief of pain in labour. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10428516